Andinet Enquobahrie, Ph.D.

Director of Medical Computing

Andinet Enquobahrie, Ph.D., is the director of Kitware’s Medical Computing Team located in Carrboro, North Carolina. He has more than two decades of experience as a contributor and leader for health care research and development projects in academic, clinical, and commercial settings. As a subject matter expert, he is responsible for technical contribution and management of image-guided intervention, surgical data science, and computer-aided detection and diagnosis projects at Kitware. As a director, Andinet leads a group of 20+ engineers who work in various medical computing research areas including image-guided intervention, virtual surgical simulation and training, computational physiology modeling, digital pathology, medical image analysis, and visualization algorithms.

Andinet’s current research efforts are focused on virtual training and planning for image-guided intervention. This includes developing a simulator that trains clinicians to improve procedural skill competence in real-time, ultrasound-guided renal biopsy, and an interactive, patient-specific virtual surgical planning system for upper airway obstruction treatments. These projects have all been funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). 

In addition, Andinet researches data science technologies that combine image analysis, 3D visualization, and machine learning algorithms to improve medical procedure outcomes, reduce procedure time, and decrease complications. These algorithms extract knowledge from medical imaging modalities, video archives, electronic medical health records, and other information sources to provide objective measures for medical skill training, planning, and guidance.

Andinet was one of the original developers of the Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK), a cross-platform, open source C++ software library that provides basic components needed to prototype image-guided surgery applications. Most of these components have been migrated to Kitware’s 3D Slicer platform, an open source and extensible application for visualization and medical image analysis that works with optical imaging, MRI, CT, and ultrasound data. 

Andinet received his Ph.D. in electrical and computer engineering from Cornell University. He received his master’s in business administration from Poole College of Management at North Carolina State University under Kitware’s tuition reimbursement program. His studies focused on innovation management, product innovation, and technology evaluation and commercialization. Andinet received his bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from Addis Ababa University.

Education

Ph.D. in electrical and computer engineering from Cornell University

M.B.A. in innovation management, product innovation, and technology evaluation and commercialization from North Carolina State University

B.S. in electrical engineering from Addis Ababa University

Awards

Outstanding Paper Award, AE-CAI MICCAI Workshop, 2019

A. Enquobahrie, S. Horvath, S. Arikatla, A. Rosenberg, K. Cleary, and K. Sharma, “Development and face validation of ultrasound-guided renal biopsy virtual trainer,” Healthcare Technology Letters, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 210-213, Dec. 2019. [URL]

Second Place Paper Award, Journal of Digital Imaging, 2008

A. Enquobahrie, P. Cheng, K. Gary, L. Ibanez, D. Gobbi, F. Lindseth, Z. Yaniv, S.
Aylward, J. Jomier, and K. Cleary, “The Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit IGSTK: An Open
Source C++ Software Toolkit,” Journal of Digital Imaging, vol. 20, no. S1, pp. 21-33, Nov. 2007. [URL]

Invited Talks & External Recognition

  • “Accelerating Computer Assisted Intervention Research using Open Source Platforms,” LCSR seminar, Johns Hopkins University, 2020
  • “Accelerating biomedical research using open source platforms for more than 20 years,” invited talk, Cleveland Clinic, 2019
  • “Sharper Image,” feature article on Ph.D. research, Cornell Engineering Magazine, 2003

Get to Know Andinet

What is your favorite thing about working at Kitware? Using open source platforms to tackle interesting medical computing problems.

What do you love most about what you do? I love getting to collaborate with anyone around the world.

Share something interesting about yourself that is not on your resume. I am originally from Ethiopia, the birthplace of coffee.

Professional Associations & Service

  • Project management professional, Project Management Institute, 2012-current

Publications

  1. A. Bray, J. Webb, A. Enquobahrie, J. Vicory, J. Heneghan, R. Hubal, S. TerMaath, P. Asare, and R. Clipp, "Pulse Physiology Engine: an Open-Source Software Platform for Computational Modeling of Human Medical Simulation," SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine, Mar. 2019. [URL]
  2. L. Tu, G. Rogers, M. Linguraru, A. Porras, A. Oh, N. Lepore, G. Buck, D. Tsering, A. Enquobahrie, and R. Keating, "Quantitative evaluation of local head malformations from 3 dimensional photography: application to craniosynostosis," in Medical Imaging 2019: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, 2019. [URL]
  3. S. Horvath, V. Arikatla, K. Cleary, K. Sharma, A. Rosenberg, and A. Enquobahrie, "Towards an advanced virtual ultrasound-guided renal biopsy trainer," in Medical Imaging 2019: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling, 2019. [URL]
  4. A. Enquobahrie, S. Horvath, S. Arikatla, A. Rosenberg, K. Cleary, and K. Sharma, "Development and face validation of ultrasound-guided renal biopsy virtual trainer," Healthcare Technology Letters, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 210-213, Dec. 2019. Winner, Outstanding Paper Award. [URL]
  5. R. Zhang, D. Zukić, D. Byrd, A. Enquobahrie, A. Alessio, K. Cleary, F. Banovac, and P. Kinahan, "PET/CT-guided biopsy with respiratory motion correction," International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 2187-2198, Dec. 2019. [URL]
  6. A. Porras, L. Tu, D. Tsering, E. Mantilla, A. Oh, A. Enquobahrie, R. Keating, G. Rogers, and M. Linguraru, "Quantification of Head Shape from Three-Dimensional Photography for Presurgical and Postsurgical Evaluation of Craniosynostosis:," Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 144, no. 6, pp. 1051e-1060e, Dec. 2019. [URL]
  7. D. Chittajallu, B. Dong, P. Tunison, R. Collins, K. Wells, J. Fleshman, G. Sankaranarayanan, S. Schwaitzberg, L. Cavuoto, and A. Enquobahrie, "XAI-CBIR: Explainable AI System for Content based Retrieval of Video Frames from Minimally Invasive Surgery Videos," in 2019 IEEE 16th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2019), 2019. [URL]
  8. D. Sharma, Z. Shanis, C. Reddy, S. Gerber, and A. Enquobahrie, "Active Learning Technique for Multimodal Brain Tumor Segmentation Using Limited Labeled Images," in Domain Adaptation and Representation Transfer and Medical Image Learning with Less Labels and Imperfect Data. Springer International Publishing, 2019, pp. 148-156. [URL]
  9. Z. Shanis, S. Gerber, M. Gao, and A. Enquobahrie, "Intramodality Domain Adaptation Using Self Ensembling and Adversarial Training," in Domain Adaptation and Representation Transfer and Medical Image Learning with Less Labels and Imperfect Data. Springer International Publishing, 2019, pp. 28-36. [URL]
  10. D. Chittajallu, A. Basharat, P. Tunison, S. Horvath, K. Wells, S. Leeds, J. Fleshman, G. Sankaranarayanan, and A. Enquobahrie, "Content-based retrieval of video segments from minimally invasive surgery videos using deep convolutional video descriptors and iterative query refinement," in Medical Imaging 2019: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling, 2019.
  11. D. Zukić, D. Byrd, P. Kinahan, and A. Enquobahrie, "Calibration Software for Quantitative PET/CT Imaging Using Pocket Phantoms," Tomography: A Journal for Imaging Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 148-158, Sep. 2018. [URL]
  12. V. Arikatla, S. Horvath, Y. Fu, L. Cavuoto, S. De, S. Schwaitzberg, and A. Enquobahrie, "Development and face validation of a virtual camera navigation task trainer," Surgical Endoscopy, Oct. 2018. [URL]
  13. Y. Fu, L. Cavuoto, D. Qi, K. Panneerselvam, G. Yang, V. Artikala, A. Enquobahrie, S. De, and S. Schwaitzberg, "Validation of a virtual intracorporeal suturing simulator," Surgical Endoscopy, Oct. 2018. [URL]
  14. V. Arikatla, M. Tyagi, A. Enquobahrie, T. Nguyen, G. Blakey, R. White, and B. Paniagua, "High fidelity virtual reality orthognathic surgery simulator," in SPIE Medical Imaging, 2018. [URL]
  15. S. Horvath, B. Paniagua, J. Andruejol, A. Porras, M. Linguraru, and A. Enquobahrie, "Osteotomy planner: an open-source tool for osteotomy simulation," in SPIE Medical Imaging, 2018. [URL]
  16. A. Porras, B. Paniagua, S. Ensel, R. Keating, G. Rogers, A. Enquobahrie, and M. Linguraru, "Locally Affine Diffeomorphic Surface Registration and Its Application to Surgical Planning of Fronto-Orbital Advancement," IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 1690-1700, Jul. 2018. [URL]
  17. R. Clipp, J. Vicory, S. Horvath, S. Mitran, J. Kimbell, J. Rhee, and A. Enquobahrie, "An Interactive, Patient-Specific Virtual Surgical Planning System for Upper Airway Obstruction Treatments," in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2018. [URL]
  18. A. Oh, M. Mastromanolis, B. Paniagua, A. Enquobahrie, M. Linguraru, L. Tu, A. Porras, N. Lepore, D. Tsering, R. Keating, and G. Rogers, "Radiation-free quantification of head malformations in craniosynostosis patients from 3D photography," in Medical Imaging 2018: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, 2018. [URL]
  19. V. Arikatla, T. Nguyen, G. Blakey, R. White, Jr, A. Enquobahrie, and B. Paniagua, "Virtual reality osteotomy trainer for orthognathic surgery," in Submitted to 10th National Image-Guided Therapy Workshop, 2018.
  20. A. Hasan, E. Kolahdouz, A. Enquobahrie, T. Caranasos, J. Vavalle, and B. Griffith, "Image-based immersed boundary model of the aortic root," Medical Engineering & Physics, vol. 47, pp. 72-84, Sep. 2017. [URL]
  21. S. Dangi, H. Shah, A. Porras, B. Paniagua, C. Linte, M. Linguraru, and A. Enquobahrie, "Robust head CT image registration pipeline for craniosynostosis skull correction surgery," Healthcare Technology Letters, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 174-178, Oct. 2017. [URL]
  22. D. Qi, K. Panneerselvam, W. Ahn, V. Arikatla, A. Enquobahrie, and S. De, "Virtual interactive suturing for the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS)," Journal of Biomedical Informatics, vol. 75, pp. 48-62, Nov. 2017. [URL]
  23. A. Porras, D. Zukić, A. Enquobahrie, R. Keating, G. Rogers, and M. Linguraru, "Personalized Optimal Planning of Fronto-Orbital Advancement Surgery for the Correction of Metopic Craniosynostosis from CT," in American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association's Annual Meeting, 2017.
  24. L. Potter, S. Arikatla, A. Bray, J. Webb, and A. Enquobahrie, "Physiology informed virtual surgical planning: a case study with a virtual airway surgical planner and BioGears," in SPIE Medical Imaging, 2017. [URL]
  25. P. Tabrizi, H. Sang, H. Talari, D. Preciado, R. Monfaredi, B. Reilly, S. Arikatla, A. Enquobahrie, and K. Cleary, "Temporal bone dissection simulator for training pediatric otolaryngology surgeons," in SPIE Medical Imaging, 2017. [URL]
  26. R. Zhang, D. Zukić, D. Byrd, A. Enquobahrie, A. Alessio, K. Cleary, and P. Kinahan, "A deformable registration workflow for motion correction in PET-CT guided biopsy," in Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Annual Meeting, 2017.
  27. K. Brady, B. Wu, S. Sim, A. Enquobahrie, R. Ortiz, and S. Arikatla, "Modeling Reduced User Experience Caused by Visual Latency," in Advances in Ergonomics Modeling, Usability & Special Populations. Springer International Publishing, 2017, pp. 267-277. [URL]
  28. S. Sim, B. Wu, K. Brady, A. Enquobahrie, R. Ortiz, and S. Arikatla, "Quantifying the Effects of Reduced Update Rate on Motor Performance and User Experience," in Advances in Ergonomics Modeling, Usability & Special Populations. Springer International Publishing, 2017, pp. 255-265. [URL]
  29. L. Tu, A. Porras, S. Ensel, D. Tsering, B. Paniagua, A. Enquobahrie, A. Oh, R. Keating, G. Rogers, and M. Linguraru, "Intracranial Volume Quantification from 3D Photography," in Computer Assisted and Robotic Endoscopy and Clinical Image-Based Procedures. Springer International Publishing, 2017, pp. 116-123. [URL]
  30. A. Porras, B. Paniagua, A. Enquobahrie, S. Ensel, H. Shah, R. Keating, G. Rogers, and M. Linguraru, "Locally Affine Diffeomorphic Surface Registration for Planning of Metopic Craniosynostosis Surgery," in Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, 2017. [URL]
  31. A. Porras, D. Zukić, A. Equobahrie, G. Rogers, and M. Linguraru, "Personalized Optimal Planning for the Surgical Correction of Metopic Craniosynostosis," in MICCAI Workshop on Clinical Image-based Procedures, 2016.
  32. D. Zukić, Z. Mullen, D. Byrd, P. Kinahan, and A. Enquobahrie, "A web-based platform for a high throughput calibration of PET scans," in Proceedings of the International Congress and Exhibition on Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, 2016. [URL]
  33. V. Arikatla, R. Ortiz, S. De, and A. Enquobahrie, "A Unified Framework for Haptic Interaction in Multimodal Virtual Environments," Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol. 220, pp. 19-24, 2016.
  34. V. Arikatla, R. Ortiz, T. Halic, S. Radigan, D. Thompson, S. De, and A. Enquobahrie, "An Approach for Automated Scene Management in Real-Time Medical Simulation Framework," Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol. 220, pp. 25-28, 2016.
  35. C. Quammen, R. Taylor, P. Krajcevski, S. Mitran, A. Enquobahrie, R. Superfine, B. Davis, S. Davis, and C. Zdanski, "The Virtual Pediatric Airways Workbench," Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol. 220, pp. 295-300, 2016.
  36. B. Wood, D. Zukić, J. Qi, C. Meyer, R. Ortiz, C. Mendoza, A. Enquobahrie, M. Linguraru, and G. Rogers, "Evaluation of Fronto-Orbital Advancement for Coronal Synostosis using a 3D Statistical Shape Model," in Proceedings of the Congress of International Society of Craniofacial Surgery, 2015.
  37. J. Olasky, G. Sankaranarayanan, N. Seymour, J. Magee, A. Enquobahrie, M. Lin, R. Aggarwal, L. Brunt, S. Schwaitzberg, C. Cao, S. De, and D. Jones, "Identifying Opportunities for Virtual Reality Simulation in Surgical Education: A Review of the Proceedings from the Innovation, Design, and Emerging Alliances in Surgery (IDEAS) Conference: VR Surgery," Surgical Innovation, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 514-521, Oct. 2015. [URL]
  38. B. Paniagua, D. Zukić, R. Ortiz, S. Aylward, B. Golden, T. Nguyen, and A. Enquobahrie, "Ultrasound-Guided Navigation System for Orthognathic Surgery," in MICCAI Workshop on Augmented Environments for Computer-Assisted Interventions, 2015. [URL]
  39. B. Wu, S. Sim, A. Enquobahrie, and R. Ortiz, "Effects of visual latency on visual-haptic experience of stiffness," in International Workshop on Quality of Multimedia Experience, 2015. [URL]
  40. J. Qi, D. Zukić, B. Wood, G. Rogers, C. Meyer, R. Ortiz, C. Mendoza, A. Enquobahrie, and M. Linguraru, "Postoperative Evaluation of Craniosynostosis based on 3D Statistical Shape Model," in Proceedings of the International Congress and Exhibition on Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, 2015.
  41. D. Zukić, J. Finet, E. Wilson, F. Banovac, G. Esposito, K. Cleary, and A. Enquobahrie, "SlicerPET: A workflow based software module for PET/CT guided needle biopsy," in Proceedings of the International Congress and Exhibition on Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, 2015. [URL]
  42. R. Ortiz, D. Zukić, J. Qi, B. Wood, G. Rogers, A. Enquobahrie, and M. Linguraru, "Stress Analysis Of Cranial Bones For Craniosynostosis Surgical Correction," in Proceedings of the International Congress and Exhibition on Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, 2015.
  43. F. Drakopoulos, R. Ortiz, A. Enquobahrie, and N. Chrisochoides, "Image-to-Mesh Conversion for Arteriovenous Malformation Surgical Simulators," in National Congress on Computational Mechanics, 2015.
  44. F. Drakopoulos, R. Ortiz, A. Enquobahrie, D. Sasaki-Adams, and N. Chrisochoides, "Tetrahedral Image-to-Mesh Conversion Software for Anatomic Modeling of Arteriovenous Malformations," Procedia Engineering, vol. 124, pp. 278-290, 2015. [URL]
  45. V. Arikatla, R. Ortiz, D. Thompson, D. Sasaki-Adams, A. Enquobahrie, and S. De, "A hybrid approach to simulate tissue behavior during surgical simulation," in International Conference on Computational & Mathematical Biomedical Engineering, 2015.
  46. L. He, R. Ortiz, A. Enquobahrie, and D. Manocha, "Interactive continuous collision detection for topology changing models using dynamic clustering," in Proceedings of the Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, 2015. [URL]
  47. L. Torres, H. Azimian, and A. Enquobahrie, "A user-friendly automated port placement planning system for laparoscopic robotic surgery," in SPIE Medical Imaging, 2014. [URL]
  48. J. Finet, R. Ortiz, J. Andruejol, A. Enquobahrie, J. Jomier, J. Payne, and S. Aylward, "Bender: An Open Source Software for Efficient Model Posing and Morphing," in Biomedical Simulation. Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp. 203-210. [URL]
  49. Y. Liu, A. Kot, F. Drakopoulos, C. Yao, A. Fedorov, A. Enquobahrie, O. Clatz, and N. Chrisochoides, "An ITK implementation of a physics-based non-rigid registration method for brain deformation in image-guided neurosurgery," Frontiers in Neuroinformatics, vol. 8, pp. 33, 2014. [URL]
  50. K. Cleary, R. Khare, A. Enquobahrie, P. Kinahan, G. Esposito, and F. Banovac, "Evaluation of a method using low-radiation dose amplitude gated phase matched PET-CT images for guided liver biopsy," in Proceedings of the International Congress and Exhibition on Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, 2014.
  51. R. Khare, G. Sala, P. Kinahan, G. Esposito, F. Banovac, K. Cleary, and A. Enquobahrie, "Experimental evaluation of a deformable registration algorithm for motion correction in PET-CT guided biopsy," in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, 2013. [URL]
  52. B. Paniagua, O. Emodi, J. Hill, J. Fishbaugh, L. Pimenta, S. Aylward, A. Enquobahrie, G. Gerig, J. Gilmore, J. van Aalst, and M. Styner, "3D of brain shape and volume after cranial vault remodeling surgery for craniosynostosis correction in infants," in SPIE Medical Imaging, 2013. [URL]
  53. V. Revanna Shivaprabhu, A. Enquobahrie, Z. Mullen, and S. Aylward, "Accelerating ultrasound image analysis research through publically available database," in SPIE Medical Imaging, 2013. [URL]
  54. A. Enquobahrie, V. Shivaprabhu, S. Aylward, J. Finet, K. Cleary, and R. Alterovitz, "Patient-specific port placement for laparoscopic surgery using atlas-based registration," in SPIE Medical Imaging, 2013. [URL]
  55. A. Vaccarella, E. De Momi, A. Enquobahrie, and G. Ferrigno, "Unscented Kalman Filter Based Sensor Fusion for Robust Optical and Electromagnetic Tracking in Surgical Navigation," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 2067-2081, Jul. 2013. [URL]
  56. A. Chernikov, P. Foteinos, Y. Liu, M. Audette, A. Enquobahrie, and N. Chrisochoides, "Tetrahedral Image-to-Mesh Conversion Approaches for Surgery Simulation and Navigation," in Image-Based Geometric Modeling and Mesh Generation. Springer, 2013, pp. 69-84.
  57. A. Vaccarella, A. Enquobahrie, G. Ferrigno, and E. De Momi, "Modular multiple sensors information management for computer-integrated surgery: Modular multiple sensors information management," The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 253-260, Sep. 2012. [URL]
  58. A. Vaccarella, E. De Momi, M. Valenti, G. Ferrigno, and A. Enquobahrie, "Application of unscented Kalman filter for robust pose estimation in image-guided surgery," in SPIE Medical Imaging, 2012. [URL]
  59. H. Lee, M. Audette, G. Joldes, and A. Enquobahrie, "Neurosurgery simulation using non-linear finite element modeling and haptic interaction," in SPIE Medical Imaging, 2012. [URL]
  60. X. Wu, J. Yao, A. Enquobahrie, H. Lee, and M. Audette, "Integration of a Multigrid ODE solver into an open medical simulation framework," in International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2012. [URL]
  61. D. Pace, A. Enquobahrie, H. Yang, S. Aylward, and M. Niethammer, "Deformable image registration of sliding organs using anisotropic diffusive regularization," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, 2011. [URL]
  62. K. Gary, A. Enquobahrie, L. Ibanez, P. Cheng, Z. Yaniv, K. Cleary, S. Kokoori, B. Muffih, and J. Heidenreich, "Agile methods for open source safety-critical software," Software: Practice and Experience, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 945-962, Aug. 2011. [URL]
  63. A. Vaccarella, M. Comparetti, A. Enquobahrie, G. Ferrigno, and E. De Momi, "Sensors management in robotic neurosurgery: The ROBOCAST project," in International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2011. [URL]
  64. H. Yang, M. Audette, A. Enquobahrie, J. Finet, and S. Barre, "The Application of Textbook-Based Surgical Ontologies to Neurosurgery Simulation Requirements," in Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery: Proceedings of the International Congress and Exhibition, 2011.
  65. M. Audette, A. Kolahi, A. Enquobahrie, C. Gatti, and K. Cleary, "Reducing depth uncertainty in large surgical workspaces, with applications to veterinary medicine," in SPIE Medical Imaging, 2010. [URL]
  66. J. Jomier, L. Ibanez, A. Enquobahrie, D. Pace, and K. Cleary, "An open-source framework for testing tracking devices using Lego Mindstorms," in SPIE Medical Imaging, 2009. [URL]
  67. K. Cleary, P. Cheng, A. Enquobahrie, and Z. Yaniv, IGSTK: The book. Signature Book Printing, 2009.
  68. A. Enquobahrie, D. Gobbi, M. Turek, P. Cheng, Z. Yaniv, F. Lindseth, and K. Cleary, "Designing tracking software for image-guided surgery applications: IGSTK experience," International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 395-403, Nov. 2008. [URL]
  69. O. Solberg, G. Tangen, F. Lindseth, T. Sandnes, A. Enquobahrie, L. Ibáñez, P. Cheng, D. Gobbi, and K. Cleary, "Integration of a real-time video grabber component with the open source image-guided surgery toolkit IGSTK," in SPIE Medical Imaging, 2008. [URL]
  70. A. Enquobahrie, P. Cheng, K. Gary, L. Ibanez, D. Gobbi, F. Lindseth, Z. Yaniv, S. Aylward, J. Jomier, and K. Cleary, "The Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit IGSTK: An Open Source C++ Software Toolkit," Journal of Digital Imaging, vol. 20, no. S1, pp. 21-33, Nov. 2007. [URL]
  71. A. Enquobahrie, A. Reeves, D. Yankelevitz, and C. Henschke, "Automated Detection of Small Pulmonary Nodules in Whole Lung CT Scans," Academic Radiology, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 579-593, May 2007. [URL]
  72. P. Cheng, L. Ibanez, D. Gobbi, K. Gary, S. Aylward, J. Jomier, A. Enquobahrie, H. Zhang, H. Kim, M. Blake, and K. Cleary, "The Image-Guided Surgery ToolKit IGSTK: an open source C++ software toolkit," in SPIE Medical Imaging, 2007. [URL]
  73. P. Cheng, H. Zhang, H. Kim, K. Gary, M. Blake, D. Gobbi, S. Aylward, J. Jomier, A. Enquobahrie, R. Avila, L. Ibanez, and K. Cleary, "IGSTK: Framework and example application using an open source toolkit for image-guided surgery applications," in SPIE Medical Imaging, 2006. [URL]
  74. A. Reeves and A. Enquobahrie, "New directions in spiral CT image processing and computer-aided diagnosis," in IASLC Textbook of Prevention and Early Detection of Lung Cancer. CRC Press, 2005, pp. 223.
  75. A. Enquobahrie, A. Reeves, D. Yankelevitz, and C. Henschke, "Automated detection of pulmonary nodules from whole lung helical CT scans: performance comparison for isolated and attached nodules," in SPIE Medical Imaging, 2004. [URL]

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