On behalf of the Pulse Physiology Community, we are pleased to announce that version 4.1 is now available. We have continued to assist companies, universities, and government agencies to integrate Pulse into their projects and product goals. We worked with these users to improve models and functionality for their needs. The 4.1 version release includes the following features and bug fixes.

Software Architecture Improvements

  • Build information included
    • Added to all client facing API’s (C++, Java, Python, C#) for external applications to get Pulse version
    • Added to state files to help identify compatibility with engine builds
  • New Hemodynamics Engine
    • Provides the ability to execute and optimize our cardiovascular circuit
    • Compares optimization iterations to validation data to converge on an optimal and valid circuit configuration
  • Update to Eigen 3.4.0 and Protobuf 3.18.0

Physiology Model Improvements

  • Added Lorazepam
Lorazepam plasma concentration and pharmacodynamic effects were validated.
  • New Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Arrhythmias with ECG waveforms
Normal Sinus is characterized by normal electrical signal and mechanical function.
Sinus Bradycardia is characterized by normal electrical signal and a heart rate less than 60.
Sinus Tachycardia is characterized by a normal electrical signal and a heart rate greater than 110.
Sinus Pulseless Electrical Activity is characterized by a normal sinus electrical signal with a reduced amplitude, but a lack of mechanical heart function.
Asystole is characterized by no electricalor mechanical function.
Coarse Ventricular Fibrillation is characterized by an unorganized electrical signal and no mechanical function.
Fine Ventricular Fibrillation is characterized by an organized electrical signal with a reduced amplitude compared to coarse ventricular fibrillation and no mechanical function.
Ventricular Tachycardia is characterized by an irregular electrical signal with a heart rate greater than 110.
Stable Ventricular Tachycardia is characerized by the Ventricular Tachycardia electrical signal, a heart rate between 110 and 150 and little to no change in the blood pressure. Unstable Ventricular Tachycardia is characterized with a similar electrical signal; however, the heart rate is greater than 150, and the blood pressure drops significantly reflecting hemodynamic instability.
  • ECG Waveforms use an interpolation algorithm to fit the waveform to the cardiac cycle
  • Ventilation equipment provides breath information to differentiate patient or equipment initiated breaths
  • Added configurable relief valve to mechanical ventilator
The mechanical ventilator model now includes a configurable relief valve to prevent damage to the patient’s lungs.
  • Added a suite of black box unit tests to verify all possible data exchange combinations

Bug Fixes

  • Correct flow calculations for compartments
  • Increased the frequency data is updated in the cardiovascular system during cardiac arrest
  • Replaced Irreversible states with more relevant clinical events: Pulse continues running unlike during Irreversible states
  • Improved calculations of patient lung volumes during disease

Coming Soon

  • Unreal Engine support
  • Sepsis model development
  • Additional Acute Cardiac Life Saving (ACLS) Algorithm updates
    • Drugs
    • Arrhythmias
    • Defibrillation
    • Cardioversion
  • Expansion of the cardiovascular circuit
  • Continued work on supporting dynamic engine pools for managing multiple pulse engines for real-time/game and research based applications
  • Continued work on black-box implementation to support interoperability between external and internal systems/models/circuits

Watch for new releases for the Pulse Unity Asset and the Pulse Explorer in the coming weeks. 

For more information on our efforts and our users, visit our website or sign up for our newsletter. If you would like to feature your Pulse use case, please email us at kitware@kitware.com.

Research reported in this publication was supported in part by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01EB031808. The content is solely the resposibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent teh official views of the National Institutes of Health. This work was funded in part by our commercial customers.

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