Rachel Clipp, Ph.D.

Technical Leader

Medical Computing

Kitware North Carolina
Carrboro, NC

Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University

M.S. in Biomedical Engineering
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University

B.S. in Mechanical Engineering
Clemson University

Rachel Clipp

Rachel Clipp, Ph.D., is a technical leader on Kitware’s Medical Computing Team located in Carrboro, North Carolina. She conducts research in computational modeling and applies these solutions to biomedical problems. She led the launch of Kitware’s Pulse Physiology Engine, an open source, multi-platform, comprehensive human physiology simulator that drives medical education, research, and training technologies.

Under Rachel’s guidance, Pulse has been successfully incorporated in commercial and government-funded products and programs. The Pulse team has addressed the needs of the military for virtual medical simulation through collaborations with Exonicus to develop the Trauma Simulator and SimQuest and BioMojo to contribute to the Modeling and Simulation Training Architecture. They have also collaborated with academic and clinical institutions to test medical device algorithms with a closed-loop physiology management system. Recently, Kitware funded a project using Pulse to study the use of ventilators for multi-patient treatment in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Rachel also works on high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics, including the Lattice-Boltzmann Method (LBM) and OpenFOAM. For example, she has worked with collaborators to analyze the upper airway for virtual surgery from medical imaging data using the LBM.

In addition to her technical work, Rachel is passionate about recruiting talented scientists and engineers to Kitware. She has been particularly involved in reaching out to women in science and engineering to increase diversity at Kitware. She participates in meetings and talks at universities to provide a career and Kitware overview to students. Rachel is also a member of the Events Committee at Kitware. She helps plan social and health and wellness events for Kitware and assists with the organization of community giving for Kitware employees.

Prior to joining Kitware, Rachel worked at Applied Research Associates as an R&D engineer between 2011 and 2016. She helped grow the medical modeling and simulation team, including leading proposal efforts and physiologic modeling for the BioGears Physiology Engine. During her time there, the BioGears team won several awards related to technical achievement, as well as publications from ARA and the government.

Rachel’s graduate work focused on the development of dynamic boundary conditions for use in finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics. The boundary conditions developed were used to predict the effects of respiration on the pulmonary vasculature. She also developed a benchtop apparatus to perfuse and ventilate excised lamb lungs to collect hemodynamic and respiratory data for validation of the dynamic boundary conditions.

Rachel received her Ph.D. and master’s degree in biomedical engineering from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and North Carolina State University. She received her bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering from Clemson University.

Awards

  • Best Trauma Simulator presented by the SimVentors Showcase Serious Games and Virtual Environments Arcade and Showcase, 2020

  • Technical Achievement Honor presented by Applied Research Associates, 2015

  • Business Development Award presented by Applied Research Associates, 2013

  • Travel Award presented by the World Congress on Mathematical Modeling and Computational Simulation of Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Dynamics, 2011

  • 3rd Place Paper in Solid Mechanics, Design, and Rehabilitation presented by the ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference, 2007

    R. Clipp and B. Steele, “Toward Determining a Dynamic Impedance Boundary Condition,” in Proceedings of the ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference, 2007. [URL]

Invited Talks & Media

Professional Associations & Service

  • Member, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

  • Member, Society of Women Engineers

Publications

  1. A. Bray, R. Clipp, M. Qureshi, S. Mitran, and A. Enquobahrie, "gLBM: A GPU enabled Lattice Boltzmann Method Library," Journal of Open Source Software, vol. 7, no. 70, pp. 2555, Feb. 2022. [URL]
  2. J. Webb, A. Bray, P. Asare, R. Clipp, Y. Mehta, S. Penupolu, and A. Patel, "Computational simulation to assess patient safety of uncompensated COVID-19 two-patient ventilator sharing using the Pulse Physiology Engine," PLoS ONE, Nov. 2020. [URL]
  3. J. Webb, A. Bray, and R. Clipp, "Parameterization of Respiratory Physiology and Pathophysiology for Real-Time Simulation," in 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC'20), 2020.
  4. R. Clipp, A. Bray, and J. Webb, "An Integrated Model for Hemorrhagic Shock and Fluid Resuscitation," in Military Health System Research Symposium (MHSRS), 2020.
  5. A. Bray, J. Webb, A. Enquobahrie, J. Vicory, J. Heneghan, R. Hubal, S. TerMaath, P. Asare, and R. Clipp, "Pulse Physiology Engine: an Open-Source Software Platform for Computational Modeling of Human Medical Simulation," SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine, Mar. 2019. [URL]
  6. R. Clipp, J. Webb, R. Metoyer, and A. Bray, "Simulation of Asthma Attack and Inhaler Actuation using the Pulse Physiology Engine," in BMES Frontiers in Medical Devices, 2019. [URL]
  7. R. Clipp, J. Vicory, S. Horvath, S. Mitran, J. Kimbell, J. Rhee, and A. Enquobahrie, "An Interactive, Patient-Specific Virtual Surgical Planning System for Upper Airway Obstruction Treatments," in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2018. [URL]
  8. F. Gessa, P. Asare, A. Bray, R. Clipp, and M. Poler, "Towards A Test and Validation Framework for Closed-Loop Physiology Management Systems for Critical and Perioperative Care," in Medical Cyber Physical Systems Workshop, 2018.
  9. R. Clipp, A. Bray, R. Metoyer, M. Thames, and J. Webb, "Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling in BioGears," in Proceedings of the International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2016. [URL]
  10. M. Thames, J. Webb, R. Clipp, J. Carter, Z. Swarm, R. Metoyer, A. Bray, and D. Byrd, "Dynamic response to heat gain and heat loss in the biogears engine," in Proceedings of the Medicine Meets Virtual Reality Conference, 2016.
  11. Z. Swarm, J. Webb, R. Clipp, J. Carter, M. Thames, and R. Metoyer, "Modeling renal behavior and control in biogears," in Proceedings of the Medicine Meets Virtual Reality Conference, 2016.
  12. R. Metoyer, B. Bergeron, R. Clipp, J. Webb, M. Thames, Z. Swarm, J. Carter, Y. Gebremichael, and J. Heneghan, "Multiscale Simulation of Insults and Interventions: The BioGears Showcase Scenarios," in Proceedings of the Medicine Meets Virtual Reality Conference, 2016.
  13. R. Clipp, A. Bray, R. Metoyer, M. Thames, and J. Webb, "Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling in biogears," in Proceedings of the Medicine Meets Virtual Reality Conference, 2016.
  14. R. Clipp, M. Thames, J. Webb, R. Metoyer, Z. Swarm, and J. Carter, "Integration of a baroreflex model into a whole body physiology engine," in Summer Biomechanics, Bioengineering, and Biotransport Conference, 2016.
  15. R. Metoyer, J. Carter, B. Bergeron, A. Baird, A. Bray, R. Clipp, M. Thames, and J. Webb, "A framework for multiscale physiology: towards individualized computer simulation," in Virtual Physiological Human Conference, 2016.
  16. Y. Gebremichael, R. Clipp, J. Webb, A. Bray, M. Thames, Z. Swarm, J. Carter, and J. Heneghan, "Integration of a spontaneous respiratory driver with blood gas feedback into biogears, an open-source, whole-body physiology model," in Summer Biomechanics, Bioengineering, and Biotransport Conference, 2015.
  17. A. Kennedy, R. Clipp, and D. Christensen, "First-in-human fractal methodology for modeling the hepatic arterial tree and tumor microvasculature for 90 Y-microsphere brachytherapy.," Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 32, no. 3_suppl, pp. 248-248, Jan. 2014. [URL]
  18. S. Snarski, J. Webb, C. Volpe, A. Menozzi, T. Sherrill, D. Hope, H. Towles, B. Young, C. Stutts, R. Steffes, J. Rittenhour, B. Fisk, R. Clipp, M. Bennett, B. Church, M. TerMaath, B. Kaminski, M. Forgione, J. Beighley, B. Judge, J. Mauger, A. Adams, and M. Larson, "Passive infrared projectile tracking and geolocation of low quadrant elevation (low qe) rockets and mortars: system development and test results," in Military Sensing Symposia Passive Sensors Conference, 2014.
  19. G. Scott and R. Clipp, "Humansim: A physiology engine for the simulation of anesthesia/anaphylaxis training," in Military Health System Research Symposium, 2012.
  20. R. Clipp and B. Steele, "An evaluation of dynamic outlet boundary conditions in a 1D fluid dynamics model," Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 61-74, Dec. 2011. [URL]
  21. R. Clipp, "Computational Models of the Pulmonary Vasculature Including the Dynamic Effects of Respiration," Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill / North Carolina State University, 2010.
  22. R. Clipp and B. Steele, "Impedance Boundary Conditions for the Pulmonary Vasculature Including the Effects of Geometry, Compliance, and Respiration," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 862-870, Mar. 2009. [URL]
  23. R. Clipp and B. Steele, "Comparison of three types of dynamic boundary conditions," in Proceedings of the ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference, 2009. [URL]
  24. R. Clipp and B. Steele, "A Dynamic Boundary Condition for the Pulmonary Vasculature," in Proceedings of the ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference, 2008. [URL]
  25. R. Clipp and B. Steele, "Boundary conditons for the pulmonary vasculature," in Institue of Biological Engineering Annual Conference, 2008.
  26. R. Clipp and B. Steele, "Toward Determining a Dynamic Impedance Boundary Condition," in Proceedings of the ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference, 2007. Winner, 3rd Place Paper. [URL]
  27. R. Clipp, "Determination of Impedance Boundary Conditions for the Pulmonary Vasculature," M.S. thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill / North Carolina State University, 2007.
  28. R. Clipp and B. Steele, "Dynamic cardio-pulmonary impedance boundary conditions," in Biomedical Engineering Society Fall Conference, 2007.

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